Antisperm antibodies are antibodies produced by the human body against sperm antigens. The main reasons for the appearance of antisperm antibodies are: scrotum injuries, varicocele, oncological diseases of the genital area, obstruction of the vas deferens, cryptorchidism, surgical operations.
ASA were detected in serum of infertile men in 1954 by Ramk and Wilson. ASA can be detected in one or both sexual partners in various media (ejaculate, cervical mucus, follicular fluid, blood serum)
Antisperm antibodies were considered the cause of infertility, according to different studies in 10%-30% of infertile couples. In the past vasectomy , the carrier of ASA from 40% to 70%. In both men and women, ASA production are directed against spermatic surface antigens, interfering with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract and inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction. The use of immunization against spermatozoa (ASA) is investigated, to reduce the population (depopulation) of wild animals. 40%-45% of prostitutes, are positive on ASA. It is concluded that there is a high incidence of antisperm antibodies among homosexual men, probably because of contact of spermatozoa with the immune system by passive anal intercourse.. Oral and rectal administration of semen triggers the production of antibodies in serum of homosexual men and in genital secretions in rodents. The effect of ASA on fertility, confirmed in cattle and domestic animals. The pathogenesis of sperm abnormalities in immune infertility is associated with the OS of spermatozoa.
The causes of the formation of antisperm antibodies[править]
Influence on reproductive processes[править]
The formation of antisperm antibodies in the body negatively affects the processes of human reproduction: decreased motility of spermatozoa, impaired penetration into cervical mucus, influence on capacitation and acrosomal reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, impaired growth and development of the embryo, DNA fragmentation.
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