Antisperm antibodies

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Antisperm antibodies are antibodies produced by the human body against sperm antigens. The main reasons for the appearance of antisperm antibodies are: scrotum injuries, varicocele, oncological diseases of the genital area, obstruction of the vas deferens, cryptorchidism, surgical operations[1].

Antispermal antibodies (ASA) are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA and / or IgM, which are directed against antigens of spermatozoa.

ASA were detected in serum of infertile[2] men in 1954 by Ramk and Wilson. ASA can be detected in one or both sexual partners in various media (ejaculate, cervical mucus, follicular fluid, blood serum)[1]


Antisperm antibodies were considered the cause of infertility[1], according to different studies in 10%-30% of infertile couples. In the past vasectomy , the carrier of ASA from 40% to 70%. In both men and women, ASA production are directed against spermatic surface antigens, interfering with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract and inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction. The use of immunization against spermatozoa (ASA) is investigated, to reduce the population (depopulation) of wild animals[3]. 40%-45% of prostitutes, are positive on ASA[4]. It is concluded that there is a high incidence of antisperm antibodies among homosexual men, probably because of contact of spermatozoa with the immune system by passive anal intercourse.[5][6][7][8][9]. Oral and rectal administration of semen triggers the production of antibodies in serum of homosexual men and in genital secretions in rodents[1][10]. The effect of ASA on fertility, confirmed in cattle and domestic animals[11][10][1]. The pathogenesis of sperm abnormalities in immune infertility is associated with the OS of spermatozoa[12].

The causes of the formation of antisperm antibodies[править]

The causes of the formation of antisperm antibodies in men are the following: trauma and surgery, varicocele[13], infections, prostatitis , oncology, unprotected anal sex [7][1][5].

Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are: violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, unprotected anal sex[14][1], infection.

Influence on reproductive processes[править]

The formation of antisperm antibodies in the body negatively affects the processes of human reproduction: decreased motility of spermatozoa, impaired penetration into cervical mucus, influence on capacitation and acrosomal reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, impaired growth and development of the embryo, DNA fragmentation[1][12].



  1. а б в г д е ё ж B. Restrepo, W. Cardona-Maya. "Antisperm antibodies and fertility association" (in en) 37 (9): 571–578. DOI:10.1016/j.acuroe.2012.11.016. ISSN 2173-5786.
  2. Heidenreich, A. (March 1994). "Risk factors for antisperm antibodies in infertile men". American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989) 31 (2-3): 69–76. ISSN 1046-7408. PMID 8049027.
  3. Chamley, L. W. (2007-06-01). "Antisperm antibodies and conception" (in en). Seminars in Immunopathology 29 (2): 169–184. DOI:10.1007/s00281-007-0075-2. ISSN 1863-2297.
  4. Kamini A Rao Principles and practice of assisted reproductive technology. — ISBN 9350907364>
  5. а б "Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men: Interference with fertility and clinical implications. An update (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate (in English). Retrieved 2017-10-15. 
  6. Wolff, H. (November 1985). "Antisperm antibodies in infertile and homosexual men: relationship to serologic and clinical findings". Fertility and Sterility 44 (5): 673–677. ISSN 0015-0282. PMID 4054346.
  7. а б Mulhall, B. P. (February 1990). "Anti-sperm antibodies in homosexual men: prevalence and correlation with sexual behaviour". Genitourinary Medicine 66 (1): 5–7. ISSN 0266-4348. PMID 2312123.
  8. Bubanovic, Ivan (2005-12-31). "Immunomodulatory Treatment of Infertility in Men with Elevated Antisperm Antibodies" (in en). American Journal of Immunology 1 (4): 130–134. DOI:10.3844/ajisp.2005.130.134. ISSN 1553-619X.
  9. Shibahara, Hiroaki (2005-06-01). "Diagnosis and treatment of immunologically infertile males with antisperm antibodies" (in en). Reproductive Medicine and Biology 4 (2): 133–141. DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0578.2005.00102.x. ISSN 1447-0578.
  10. а б Marshburn, P. B. (May 1994). "The role of antisperm antibodies in infertility". Fertility and Sterility 61 (5): 799–811. ISSN 0015-0282. PMID 8174713.
  11. Kim, C. A. (June 1999). "Effects of experimentally generated bull antisperm antibodies on in vitro fertilization". Biology of Reproduction 60 (6): 1285–1291. ISSN 0006-3363. PMID 10330082.
  12. а б Bozhedomov, V. A. (2015-11-01). "Functional deficit of sperm and fertility impairment in men with antisperm antibodies". Journal of Reproductive Immunology 112 (Supplement C): 95–101. DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2015.08.002.
  13. Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S. (September 2017). "Varicocele and male infertility" (in en). Nature Reviews Urology 14 (9): 523–533. DOI:10.1038/nrurol.2017.98. ISSN 1759-4812.