Список ядовитых растений

Материал из свободной русской энциклопедии «Традиция»
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Icons-mini-icon 2main.png Основная статья: Яд
Около 700 голов скота погибло при поедании корма, содержавшено ядовитые сорняки

К ядовитым растениям относят те, которые при использовании относительно небольшого количества, или при кожном контакте, вызывают токсическое поражение живых организмов. Ядовитые грибы нередко рассматриваются как отдельная категория.

Яды, вырабатываемые растениями, служат химическими факторами, участвующими в межвидовых взаимоотношениях (см. также фитоалексины, фитонциды). Примеров использования химических веществ для защиты от животных — фитофагов — у растений очень много. Специфическая черта всех растений, как и всего живого — естественный отбор, в том числе сохранение растения мерами «химической защиты». Яды, которые вырабатывают растения, называют фитотоксинами[1].

Ниже представлен список растений, которые целиком или частично ядовиты. Их употребление представляет серьёзную опасность для жизни человека и животных. Традиционный взгляд на ядовитые растения ограничивается, как правило, видами, опасными для человека или домашних животных. При этом в разряд ядовитых попадает сравнительно небольшое число видов, в основном алкалоидосодержащих, причём среди них многие относятся к лекарственным. Растения, относительно безвредные для человека, могут быть токсичными для насекомых, птиц или рыб.

Токсичность растений может различаться в зависимости от положения вида в географическом ареале, климатических условий года, стадии онтогенеза и фенофазы; ядовитость может зависеть от ряда других причин, например, от состава почвы, её температуры и влажности.

Пищевые растения, имеющие относительно ядовитые части[править]

Доля токсичных веществ в съедобных частях этих растений достаточно мала, чтобы все они могли считаться пищевыми.

Прочие растения[править]

(Возможна прямая и обратная сортировка по первым двум колонкам.)

Латинское название Русское название Ядовитые вещества
Aconitum Аконит аконитин, зонгорин
Anabasis Ежовник анабазин, лупинин, афиллин, оксифиллин
Andromeda Подбел гликозид андромедотоксин
Antirrhinum Львиный зев гликозиды, сапонины
Apocynum Кутра гликозид цимарин
Aralia Аралия различные гликозиды, сапонины, алкалоиды
Artemisia Полынь сантонин, туйон, таурицин
Aristolochia Кирказон алкалоид аристолохин
Asarum Копытень азарон, алкалоид азорин, гликозиды
Atropa Красавка атропин, гиосциамин, скополамин
Brassica Горчица эфирное горчичное масло (40 % аллилгорчичного масла, 50 % кротонилгорчичного масла), гликозид синигрин
Bryonia Переступень тритерпеноиды: брионоловая кислота, кукурбитацины D (элатерин А) и В, Е (элатерин), I (элатерин В), J, К, а также сапонины и алкалоиды
Calla Белокрыльник ароин
Cannabis Конопля каннабинол, тетрагидроканнабинол, каннабидинол
Centaurium Золототысячник гликозиды: эритроцентаурин, эритротаурин, алкалоид геницианин
Corydalis Хохлатка алкалоиды: бульбокапнин, бикукулин, корикавин, корибульбин, коридамин
Cicuta Вёх цикутоксин
Cimicifuga Клопогон сапонины
Colchicum Безвременник колхицин, колхамин
Conium Болиголов кониин, конгидрин, псевдоконгидрин
Convallaria Ландыш сапонин конвалларин и ряд сердечных гликозидов (конвалламарин, конваллатоксин и др.)
Convolvulus Вьюнок алкалоиды: конвольвин, конволамин
Cuscuta Повилика алкалоид кускутин, гликозид конвольвулин, сапонины
Cyclamen Цикламен сапонин цикламин
Cynoglossum Чернокорень алкалоиды: циноглоссин, консолидин
Daphne Волчеягодник дитерпеноиды: дафнетоксин, мезереин; кумарины — дафнин, дафнетин
Datura Дурман атропин, гиосциамин, скополамин
Dictamnus Ясенец алкалоиды: диктамнин, скиманин
Dieffenbachia Диффенбахия цианогенные гликозиды, щавелевая кислота и оксалат кальция
Dryopteris Щитовник производные флороглюцина: филиксовая кислота, флаваспидиновая кислота, аспидинол, алъбаспидин.
Digitalis Наперстянка содержит большое число сердечных гликозидов карденолидной природы
Echinops Мордовник алкалоиды: эхинопсин, эхинопсеин
Ephedra Хвойник алкалоиды: эфедрин, псевдоэфедрин
Equisetum Хвощ тиаминазоподобные соединения, сапонины (эквизетонин), флавоновые гликозиды
Erysimum Желтушник стероидные гликозиды, карденолидной природы: эризимин, эризимозид, эриканозид
Euonymus Бересклет гликозид эвонимин
Euphorbia Молочай тритерпеноиды (эуфол, эуфорбол), дитерпеноиды, флавоноиды и др.
Gleditsia Гледичия различные антрагликозиды, флавоновые соединения, сапонины, алкалоиды
Gratiola Авран тетрацикличный тритерпен грациогенин, гликозид грациозид
Halostachys Соляноколосник алкалоид голостахин
Hedera Плющ сапонин гедерин
Heliotropium Гелиотроп гелиотрин, лазиокарпин
Helleborus Морозник гликозид геллебореин и сапонин геллебрин
Heracleum Борщевик различные алкалоиды, тритерпеновые сапонины, флавоноиды, фуранокумарины.
Hyoscyamus Белена атропин, гиосциамин, скополамин
Impatiens Недотрога гликозиды, алкалоиды, сапонины
Juniperus Можжевельник Основные действующие вещества — эфирное масло, на половину состоящее из третичного спирта — сабинола и различных терпеновых соединений (до 30 % состава) — сабинена, пинена, кадинена, борнеола и др.; органические кислоты и др.
Lagochilus Зайцегуб алкалоид лагохилин
Ledum Багульник ледол, цимол, палюстрол, арбутин
Leucojum Белоцветник алкалоиды: ликорин, галантамин, изотацеттин
Leucothoë Леукотоэ андромедотоксин
Ligustrum Бирючина гликозид лигустрин
Lycopodium Плаун алкалоиды: аннонотинин, ликоподин, обскурин, клаватин, клаватоксин, компланатин.
Melilotus Донник кумарин, дикумарин
Menispermum Луносемянник алкалоиды: даурицин, синоменин, актумин
Nelumbo Лотос алкалоид нелюмбин
Nicotiana Табак алкалоид никотин
Nerium Олеандр сердечные гликозиды, сапонины, урсоловая кислота
Ononis Стальник сапонины
Papaver Мак алкалоиды: морфин, кодеин, папаверин, тебаин, протопин, лауденин и др.
Peganum Гармала различные бета-карболины: гармин, гармалин
Petasites Белокопытник пирролизидиновые алкалоиды
Phytolacca Лаконос гликопротеиды, сапонины, алкалоид фитолаккотоксин
Pieris Пиерис андромедотоксин
Polygonatum Купена гликозиды и стероидные сапонины
Pyrethrum Пиретрум содержит пиретрины и цинерины
Ranunculus Лютик гамма-лактоны (ранункулин и протоанемонин), флавоноиды (кемпферол, кверцетин и др.)
Rhamnus Жостер антрапроизводные: глюкофрангулин, франгулин, франгулаэмодин; флавонолы: кверцетин, кемпферол; цианогликозиды
Ricinus Клещевина рицин, рицинин
Salsola Солянка алкалоиды: сальсолин, сальсолидин и др.
Sambucus Бузина самбунигрин, d-амигдалин
Saponaria Мыльнянка флавоновый гликозид — сапонарин, тритерпеновые сапонины
Scopolia Скополия гиосциамин, скополамин
Sedum Очиток сапонины, алкалоид, седамин, гликозиды
Senecio Крестовник платифиллин, сенецифиллин, саррецин
Solanum Паслён алкалоид соланидин, присутствующий в форме гликоалкалоида соланина
Sophora Софора алкалоиды: пахикарпин, пахикарпидин, софорокарпин
Tanacetum Пижма бициклические терпеновые кетоны и туйоны
Taxus Тис таксин, милосеин, эфедрин, гликозид таксикантин.
Thermopsis Термопсис алкалоиды: термопсин, гомотермопсин, цитизин, метилцитизин, пахикарпин, анагирин
Thesium Ленец алкалоид тезин
Toxicodendron Токсикодендрон токсидендрол
Urtica Крапива муравьиная кислота, гистамин, гликозид уртицин, нитриты
Veratrum Чемерица алкалоиды: йервин, рубийервин, изорубийервин, гермин, гермидин, протовератрин
Vinca Барвинок алкалоид винкаин
Vincetoxicum Ластовень гликозид винцетоксин, сапонины
Viscum Омела алкалоиды, токсические аминокислоты и полипептиды (форатоксин и вискотоксины)

См. также[править]

Литература[править]

  • Б. Н. Орлов, Д. Б. Гелашвили, А. К. Ибрагимов. Ядовитые животные и растения СССР : Справочное пособие для студентов вузов по спец. «Биология». — М.: Высш. шк., 1990. — 272 с.>
  • Проф. Л. М. Кречетович. Ядовитые растения, их польза и вред. — М.-Л.: Сельхозгиз, 1931. — 317 с.>

Внешние ссылки[править]

На русском языке[править]

На иностранных языках[править]

Примечания[править]

]</ref> A related species is Cerbera tanghin the seeds of which are known as tanghin poison nut and have been used as an 'ordeal poison'.

  • Chelidonium majus (also known as greater celandine). The whole plant is toxic in moderate doses as it contains a range of isoquinoline alkaloids, but there are claimed to be therapeutic uses when used at the correct dosage.[1] The main alkaloid present in the herb and root is coptisine, with berberine, chelidonine, sanguinarine and chelerythrine also present. Sanguinarine is particularly toxic with an Шаблон:LD50 of only 18 mg per kg body weight.[2] The effect of the fresh herb is analgesic, cholagogic, antimicrobial and oncostatic,[3] with action as a central nervous system sedative. In animal tests, Chelidonium majus is shown to be cytostatic. Early studies showed that the latex sap causes contact dermatitis and eye irritation. Stains on skin of the fingers are sometimes reported to cause eye irritation after rubbing the eyes or handling contact lenses. The characteristic latex also contains proteolytic enzymes and the phytocystatin chelidostatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor.[4]
  • Christmas rose — see Helleborus niger.
  • Cicuta (several species) (commonly known as water hemlock, cowbane, wild carrot, snakeweed, poison parsnip, false parsley, children’s bane and death-of-man). The root, when freshly pulled out of the ground, is extremely poisonous and contains the toxin cicutoxin, a central nervous system stimulant, resulting in seizures. When dried, the poisonous effect is reduced. The most common species is C. maculata; one of the species found in the Western USA, C. douglasii, often found in pastures and swamps, has especially thick stems and very large and sturdy flowers which are sometimes harvested for flower displays. This is inadvisable as the sap is also toxic.
  • Cocklebur — see Xanthium.
  • Colchicum autumnale (commonly known as autumn crocus and meadow saffron). The bulbs contain colchicine. Colchicine poisoning has been compared to arsenic poisoning; symptoms start 2 to 5 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested and include burning in the mouth and throat, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and kidney failure. These symptoms may set in as many as 24 hours after the exposure. Onset of multiple-system organ failure may occur within 24 to 72 hours. This includes hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the GI tract, which may result in death. Additionally, sufferers may experience kidney damage resulting in low urine output and bloody urine; low white blood cell counts (persisting for several days); anemia; muscular weakness; and respiratory failure. Recovery may begin within 6 to 8 days. There is no specific antidote for colchicine, although various treatments do exist.[5] Despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity, colchicine is prescribed in the treatment of gout,[6] familial Mediterranean fever, pericarditis and Behçet's disease. It is also being investigated for its use as an anti-cancer drug.
  • Columbine — see Aquilegia.
  • Conium maculatum (commonly known as hemlock, poison hemlock, spotted parsley, spotted cowbane, bad-man’s oatmeal, poison snakeweed and beaver poison). All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid coniine which causes stomach pains, vomiting, and progressive paralysis of the central nervous system. Can be fatal; it is the poison that killed Socrates. Not to be confused with hemlock trees (Tsuga spp), which, while not edible, are not nearly as toxic as the herbaceous plant Conium.
  • Consolida (commonly known as larkspur).[7] Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis. Often fatal.
  • Convallaria majalis (commonly known as lily of the valley). Contains 38 different cardiac glycosides.
  • Coriaria myrtifolia (commonly known as redoul). A mediterranean plant containing the toxin coriamyrtin, ingestion of which produces digestive, neurological and respiratory problems. The poisonous fruits superficially resemble blackberries and may mistakenly be eaten as such. Can be fatal in children.
  • Corn cockle — see Agrostemma githago.
  • Corn lily — see Veratrum.
  • Cowbane — see Cicuta.
  • Cows and bulls — see Arum maculatum.
  • Crab’s eye — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Cuckoo-pint — see Arum maculatum.
  • Cyanobacteria A phylum of bacteria, commonly known as blue-green algae. Many different species, including Anacystis cynea and Anabaena circinalis. Produce several different toxins known collectively as cyanotoxins. These can include neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, endotoxins and cytotoxins. Potentially hazardous particularly to marine animals, but also to humans.
  • Cytisus scoparius (commonly known as broom or common broom). Contains toxic alkaloids that depress the heart and nervous system.[8] The alkaloid sparteine is a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent; a sodium channel blocker. It is not FDA approved for human use as an antiarrhythmic agent, and it is not included in the Vaughn Williams classification of antiarrhythmic drugs.
  • Daffodil — see Narcissus.
  • Daphne. The berries (either red or yellow) are poisonous, causing burns to mouth and digestive tract, followed by coma. Often fatal.
  • Darnel — see Lolium temulentum.
  • Datura Contains the alkaloids scopolamine and atropine. Datura has been used as a hallucinogenic drug by the native peoples of the Americas and others.[9] Incorrect dosage can lead to death.
  • Datura stramonium (commonly known as jimson weed, thorn apple, stinkweed and Jamestown weed). All parts of the plant are poisonous, causing abnormal thirst, vision distortions, delirium, incoherence, coma. Often fatal. A significant grazing livestock poison in North America.
  • Deadly nightshade — see Atropa belladonna.
  • Deathcamas — see Zigadenus.
  • Delphinium (also known as larkspur). Contains the alkaloid delsoline. Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis, often fatal.
  • Dendrocnide moroides (also known as stinging tree and gympie gympie). Capable of inflicting a painful sting when touched. The stinging may last for several days and is exacerbated by touching, rubbing, and cold. Can be fatal.
  • Devils and angels — see Arum maculatum.
  • Dicentra cucullaria (also known as bleeding heart and Dutchman’s breeches). Leaves and roots are poisonous and cause convulsions and other nervous symptoms.
  • Dichapetalum cymosum (also known as gifblaar). Well-known as a livestock poison in South Africa; this plant contains the metabolic poison fluoroacetic acid.
  • Dieffenbachia (commonly known as dumbcane'). All parts are poisonous, causing intense burning, irritation, and immobility of the tongue, mouth, and throat. Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing, leading to death.
  • Digitalis purpurea (commonly known as foxglove). The leaves, seeds, and flowers are poisonous, containing cardiac or other steroid glycosides. These cause irregular heartbeat, general digestive upset, and confusion. Can be fatal.
  • Doll’s eyes — see Actaea pachypoda.
  • Dumbcane — see Dieffenbachia.
  • Dutchman’s breeches — see Dicentra cucullaria.
  • Elder/Elderberry — see Sambucus.
  • Euonymus europaeus (commonly known as spindle, European spindle or spindle tree). The fruit is poisonous, containing amongst other substances, the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, as well as an extremely bitter terpene. Poisonings are more common in young children, who are enticed by the brightly-coloured fruits. Ingestion can result in liver and kidney damage and even death. There are many other species of Euonymus, many of which are also poisonous.
  • Excoecaria agallocha (commonly known as milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove and river poison tree). Contact with milky sap can cause skin irritation and blistering; eye contact can cause temporary blindness.
  • False acacia — see Robinia pseudoacacia.
  • False hellebore — see Veratrum.
  • Foxglove — see Digitalis purpurea.
  • Frangipani — see Plumeria.
  • Gelsemium sempervirens (commonly known as yellow jessamine). All parts are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal. It is possible to become ill from ingesting honey made from jessamine nectar.
  • Giant hogweed — see Heracleum mantegazzianum.
  • Giddee giddee — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Gifblaar — see Dichapetalum cymosum.
  • Greater celandine — see Chelidonium majus.
  • Gympie gympie — see Dendrocnide moroides.
  • Heart of Jesus — see Caladium.
  • Hedera helix (or common ivy) The leaves and berries are poisonous, causing stomach pains, labored breathing, possible coma.
  • Helleborus niger (also known as Christmas rose) Contains protoanemonin,[10] or ranunculin,[11] which has an acrid taste and can cause burning of the eyes, mouth and throat, oral ulceration, gastroenteritis and hematemesis.[12]
  • Hemlock — see Conium maculatum
  • Hemlock water-dropwort — see Oenanthe crocata.
  • Henbane — see Hyoscyamus niger.
  • Heracleum mantegazzianum (also known as giant hogweed). The sap is phototoxic, causing phytophotodermatitis (severe skin inflammations) when affected skin is exposed to sunlight or to UV-rays. Initially the skin colours red and starts itching. Then blisters form as reaction continues over 48 hours. They form black or purplish scars, which can last several years. Hospitalisation may become necessary. Presence of minute amounts of sap in the eyes can lead to temporary or even permanent blindness.
  • Hippomane mancinella (commonly known as manchineel). All parts of this tree, including the fruit, contain toxic phorbol esters typical of the Euphorbiaceae plant family. Specifically the tree contains 12-deoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol-6gamma, 7alpha-oxide, hippomanins, mancinellin, sapogenin, phloracetophenone-2, 4-dimethylether is present in the leaves, while the fruits possess physostigmine.[13] Contact with the milky white sap produces strong allergic dermatitis.[14] Standing beneath the tree during rain will cause blistering of the skin from even slight contact with this liquid (even a small drop of rain with the milky substance in it will cause the skin to blister). Burning tree parts may cause blindness if the smoke reaches the eyes. The fruit can also be fatal if eaten. Many trees carry a warning sign, while others have been marked with a red «X» on the trunk to indicate danger. In the French Antilles the trees are often marked with a painted red band a few feet above the ground.[15] The Caribs used the sap of this tree to poison their arrows and would tie captives to the trunk of the tree, ensuring a slow and painful death. A poultice of arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) was used by the Arawaks and Taíno as an antidote against such arrow poisons.[16] The Caribs were also known to poison the water supply of their enemies with the leaves.[источник?] Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León was struck by an arrow that had been poisoned with manchineel sap during battle with the Calusa in Florida, dying shortly thereafter.[17]
  • Horse chestnut — see Aesculus hippocastanum.
  • Holly (European) — see Ilex aquifolium.
  • Hyacinth — see Hyacinthus orientalis.
  • Hyacinthus orientalis (commonly known as hyacinth). The bulbs are poisonous, causing nausea, vomiting, gasping, convulsions, and possibly death. Even handling the bulbs can cause skin irritation.
  • Hyoscyamus niger (commonly known as henbane). Seeds and foliage contain hyoscyamine, scopolamine and other tropane alkaloids. Can produce dilated pupils, hallucinations, increased heart rate, convulsions, vomiting, hypertension and ataxia.
  • Ilex aquifolium (commonly known as European holly). The berries cause gastroenteritis, resulting in nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
  • Indian licorice — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Ivy (Common) — see Hedera helix.
  • Jack in the pulpit — see Arum maculatum.
  • Jacobaea vulgaris (commonly known as ragwort). Contains many different alkaloids, including jacobine, jaconine, jacozine, otosenine, retrorsine, seneciphylline, senecionine, and senkirkine.[18]. Poisonous to livestock and hence of concern to people who keep horses and cattle. Horses do not normally eat fresh ragwort due to its bitter taste, however it loses this taste when dried, and become dangerous in hay. The result, if sufficient quantity is consumed, can be irreversible cirrhosis of the liver. Signs that a horse has been poisoned include yellow mucus membranes, depression, and lack of coordination. The danger is that the toxin can have a cumulative effect; the alkaloid does not actually accumulate in the liver but a breakdown product can damage DNA and progressively kills cells. Jacobaea vulgaris is also theoretically poisonous to humans, although poisoning is unlikely as it is distasteful and not used as a food. However some sensitive individuals can suffer from an allergic skin reaction after handling the plant because, like many members of the compositae family, it contains sesquiterpine lactones (which are different from the pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are responsible for the toxic effects), which can cause compositae dermatitis.
  • Jamestown weed — see Datura stramonium and Datura.
  • Jequirity — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Jerusalem cherry — see Solanum pseudocapsicum.
  • Jimson weed — see Datura stramonium and Datura.
  • 'John Crow' Bead — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Jumbie bead — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Kalanchoe delagoensis (commonly known as mother of millions) Contains bufadienolide cardiac glycosides[19] which can cause cardiac poisoning, particularly in grazing animals.[20] During 1997, 125 head of cattle died after eating mother-of-millions on a travelling stock reserve near Moree, NSW.[21]
  • Kalmia latifolia (commonly known as mountain laurel). Contains andromedotoxin and arbutin. The green parts of the plant, flowers, twigs, and pollen are all toxic, and symptoms of toxicity begin to appear about 6 hours following ingestion. Poisoning produces anorexia, repeated swallowing, profuse salivation, depression, uncoordination, vomiting, frequent defecation, watering of the eyes, irregular or difficulty breathing, weakness, cardiac distress, convulsions, coma, and eventually death. Autopsy will show gastrointestinal irritation and hemorrhage.
  • Laburnum. All parts of the plant and especially the seeds are poisonous and can be lethal if consumed in excess. The main toxin is cytisine, a nicotinic receptor agonist. Symptoms of poisoning may include intense sleepiness, vomiting, excitement, staggering, convulsive movements, slight frothing at the mouth, unequally dilated pupils, coma and death. In some cases, diarrhea is very severe and at times the convulsions are markedly tetanic.
  • Larkspur — see Consolida and Delphinium.
  • Ligustrum (several species, commonly known as privet). Berries and leaves are poisonous. Berries contain ligustrin and syringin, which cause digestive disturbances, nervous symptoms. Can be fatal. Privet is one of several plants which are poisonous to horses. Privet pollen is known to cause asthma and eczema in sufferers. It is banned from sale or cultivation in New Zealand due to the effects of its pollen on asthma sufferers.
  • Lilium (commonly known as lily). Most have an unknown water-soluble toxin found in all parts of the plant. Extremely poisonous, yet attractive, to cats, causing acute renal failure; 2 petals can kill.
  • Lily — see Lilium.
  • Lily of the valley — see Convallaria majalis.
  • Lolium temulentum (commonly called darnel or poison ryegrass). The seeds and seed heads of this common garden weed may contain the alkaloids temuline and loliine. Some experts also point to the fungus ergot or fungi of the genus endoconidium, both of which grow on the seed heads of rye grasses, as an additional source of toxicity.[22]
  • Lords and ladies — see Arum maculatum.
  • Madiera winter cherry — see Solanum pseudocapsicum.
  • Manchineel tree — see Hippomane mancinella.
  • Mayapple — see Podophyllum peltatum.
  • Meadow saffron — see Colchicum autumnale.
  • Menispermum (commonly known as moonseed). The fruits and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal.
  • Milky mangrove — see Excoecaria agallocha.
  • Monkshood — see Aconitum.
  • Moonseed — see Menispermum.
  • Mother of millions — see Kalanchoe delagoensis.
  • Mountain laurel — see Kalmia latifolia.
  • Naked boys — see Arum maculatum.
  • Narcissus (commonly known as daffodil). Various species and garden cultivars. The bulbs are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Can be fatal. Stems also cause headaches, vomiting, and blurred vision.
Oleander is toxic to humans and animals.
  • Nerium oleander (commonly known as oleander). All parts are toxic, but especially the leaves and woody stems. Contains nerioside, oleandroside, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Causes severe digestive upset, heart trouble and contact dermatitis. The smoke of burning oleander can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
  • Oak — see Quercus.
  • Oenanthe crocata (commonly known as hemlock water dropwort). Contains oenanthotoxin. The leaves may be eaten safely by livestock, but the stems and especially the carbohydrate-rich roots are much more poisonous. Animals familiar with eating the leaves may eat the roots when these are exposed during ditch clearance — one root is sufficient to kill a cow, and human fatalities are also known in these circumstances. Scientists at the University of Eastern Piedmont in Italy claimed to have identified this as the plant responsible for producing the sardonic grin,[23][24] and it is the most-likely candidate for the "sardonic herb, " which was a neurotoxic plant used for the ritual killing of elderly people in Phoenician Sardinia. When these people were unable to support themselves, they were intoxicated with this herb and then dropped from a high rock or beaten to death. Criminals were also executed in this way.[25]
  • Oleander — see Nerium oleander.
  • Ongaonga — see Urtica ferox.
  • Passiflora caerulea (also known as the blue passion flower or the common passion flower). The leaves contain cyanogenic glycoside, which breaks down into cyanide.
  • Passion flower (blue or common) — see Passiflora caerulea.
  • Peucedanum galbanum (commonly known as blister bush). All parts are poisonous, and contact causes painful blistering that is intensified with exposure to sunlight.
  • Physostigma venenosum (commonly known as calabar bean and also as ordeal beans due to their former use in trials by ordeal). The toxin in the seeds is the parasympathomimetic alkaloid physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. Symptoms of poisoning include copious saliva, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, dizziness, headache, stomach pain, sweating, dyspepsia and seizures.[26], and can lead to cholinergic syndrome or «SLUDGE syndrome». Medicinal uses of physostigmine include the treatment of myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and delayed gastric emptying.
  • Plumeria (commonly known as frangipani). Contact with the milky sap may irritate eyes and skin.
  • Phytolacca (commonly known as pokeweed). Leaves, berries and roots contain phytolaccatoxin and phytolaccigenin. Toxin in young leaves is reduced with repeated boiling and draining. Ingestion of poisonous parts of the plant may cause severe stomach cramping, persistent diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting (sometimes bloody), slow and difficult breathing, weakness, spasms, hypertension, severe convulsions, and death.
  • Podophyllum peltatum (commonly known as mayapple). Green portions of the plant, unripe fruit, and especially the rhizome contain the non-alkaloid toxin podophyllotoxin, which causes diarrhea, severe digestive upset.
  • Poison hemlock — see Conium maculatum.
  • Poison ivy — see Toxicodendron.
  • Poison oak — see Toxicodendron.
  • Poison parsnip — see Cicuta.
  • Poison sumac — see Toxicodendron.
  • Poison ryegrass — see Lolium temulentum.
  • Pokeweed — see Phytolacca.
  • Precatory bean — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Privet — see Ligustrum.
  • Pteridium aquilinum (commonly known as bracken). Carcinogenic to humans and animals such as mice, rats, horses and cattle when ingested. The carcinogenic compound is ptaquiloside or PTQ, which can leach from the plant into the water supply, which may explain an increase in the incidence of gastric and oesophageal cancers in humans in bracken-rich areas.[27]
  • Quercus (several species, commonly known as oak)). The leaves and acorns of oak species are poisonous in large amounts to humans and livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep and goats, but not pigs. Poisoning is caused by the toxin tannic acid, which causes gastroenteritis, heart trouble, contact dermatitis and kidney damage. Symptoms of poisoning include lack of appetite, depression, constipation, diarrhea (which may contain blood), blood in urine, and colic. Rarely fatal however, and in fact after proper processing acorns are consumed as a staple in many parts of the world.
  • Ragwort — see Jacobaea vulgaris.
  • Redoul — see Coriaria myrtifolia.
  • Rhododendron (certain species commonly known as Azaleas). All parts are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, depression, breathing difficulties, coma. Rarely fatal.
  • Rhus lancia (commonly known as African sumac). Closely related to poison ivy, all parts of this tree contain low levels of a highly irritating oil with urushiol. Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. It spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. As urushiol is not a poison but an allergen, it will not affect certain people. The smoke of burning Rhus lancia can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
  • Ricinus communis (commonly known as castor oil plant or Palma Christi). The seeds contain ricin, an extremely toxic water-soluble protein. Also present are ricinine, an alkaloid, and an irritant oil. According to the 2007 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records, this plant is the most poisonous in the world. Castor oil, long used as a laxative, muscle rub, and in cosmetics, is made from the seeds, but the ricin is removed during processing. The lethal dose in adults is considered to be 4 to 8 seeds, but reports of actual poisoning are relatively rare.[28] If ingested, symptoms may be delayed by up to 36 hours but commonly begin within 2-4 hours. These include a burning sensation in mouth and throat, abdominal pain, purging and bloody diarrhea. Within several days there is severe dehydration, a drop in blood pressure and a decrease in urine. Unless treated, death can be expected to occur within 3-5 days; if victims have not succumbed after this time, they often recover.[29] In 1978, ricin was used to assassinate Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian dissident. He was stabbed with the point of an umbrella while waiting at a bus stop near Waterloo Station in London. After his death a perforated metallic pellet was found embedded in his leg; this had presumably contained the ricin toxin.[29] Toxicity varies among animal species: 4 seeds will kill a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox or horse, 7 a pig, and 11 a dog. Poisoning occurs when animals ingest broken seeds or break the seed by chewing; intact seeds may pass through the digestive tract without releasing the toxin. Ducks have shown substantial resistance to the seeds: it takes an average of 80 to kill them.[30]
  • River poison tree — see Excoecaria agallocha.
  • Robinia pseudoacacia (also known as black locust and false acacia). Pods are toxic.
  • Rosary pea — see Abrus precatorius.
  • Sambucus (commonly known as elder or elderberry). The roots are considered poisonous and cause nausea and digestive upset.
  • Sanguinaria canadensis (commonly known as bloodroot). The rhizome contains morphine-like benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, primarily the toxin sanguinarine. Sanguinarine kills animal cells by blocking the action of Na+/K+-ATPase transmembrane proteins. As a result, applying S. canadensis to the skin may destroy tissue and lead to the formation of a large scab, called an eschar. Although applying escharotic agents, including S. canadensis, to the skin is sometimes suggested as a home treatment for skin cancer, these attempts can be severely disfiguring,[31] as well as unsuccessful. Case reports have shown that in such instances tumor has recurred and/or metastasized.[32] The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the inclusion of sanguinarine in toothpastes as an antibacterial or anti-plaque agent,[33][34][35][36] although it is believed that this use may cause leukoplakia, a premalignant oral lesion.[37] The safe level of sanguinarine in such products is subject to regulation and debate.[38][39] S. canadensis extracts have also been promoted by some supplement companies as a treatment or cure for cancer, but the FDA has listed some of these products among its «187 Fake Cancer 'Cures' Consumers Should Avoid».[40] Bloodroot is a popular red natural dye used by Native American artists, especially among southeastern rivercane basketmakers.[41] However in spite of supposed curative properties and historical use by Native Americans as an emetic, due to its toxicity internal use is not advisable (sanguinarine has an Шаблон:LD50 of only 18 mg per kg body weight).[2]
  • Solanum dulcamara (commonly known as bittersweet nightshade). All parts are poisonous, containing solanine and causing fatigue, paralysis, convulsions, and diarrhea. Rarely fatal.[42]
  • Solanum nigrum (commonly known as black nightshade). All parts of the plant except the ripe fruit contain the toxic glycoalkaloid solanine. Solanine poisoning is primarily displayed by gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, burning of the throat, cardiac dysrhythmia, headache and dizziness. In more severe cases, hallucinations, loss of sensation, paralysis, fever, jaundice, dilated pupils and hypothermia can result. In large quantities, solanine poisoning can be fatal.
  • Solanum pseudocapsicum (commonly known as Jerusalem cherry, Madiera winter cherry and winter cherry). All parts, especially the berries, are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. It is occasionally fatal, especially to children.
  • Spindle tree or spindle — see Euonymus europaeus.
  • Starch-root — see Arum maculatum.
  • Stinging tree — see Dendrocnide moroides.
  • Stinkweed — see Datura stramonium and Datura.
  • Strychnine tree — see Strychnos nux-vomica.
  • Strychnos nux-vomica (commonly known as the strychnine tree). The seeds usually contain about 1,5 % strychnine, an extremely bitter and deadly alkaloid. This substance throws a human into intense muscle convulsions and usually kills within three hours. The bark of the tree may also contain brucine, another dangerous chemical.
  • Suicide tree — see Cerbera odollam.
  • Taxus baccata (commonly known as English yew', common yew and graveyard tree). Nearly all parts contain toxic taxanes (except the red, fleshy, and slightly sweet aril surrounding the toxic seeds).[43][44] The seeds themselves are particularly toxic if chewed.[45] Several people have committed suicide by ingesting leaves and seeds,[46][47], including Catuvolcus, king of a tribe in what is now Belgium.
  • Thorn apple — see Datura stramonium and Datura.
  • Toxicodendron Several species, including Toxicodendron radicans (commonly known as poison ivy), Toxicodendron diversilobum (commonly known as poison-oak), and Toxicodendron vernix (commonly known as poison sumac). All parts of these plants contain a highly irritating oil with urushiol. Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. It spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. Despite the common names, urushiol is actually not a poison but an allergen, and because of this it will not affect certain people. The smoke of burning poison ivy can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.
  • Urtica ferox (commonly known as ongaonga). Even the lightest touch can result in a painful sting that lasts several days.
  • Veratrum (commonly known as false hellebore and corn lily). Several species, containing highly toxic steroidal alkaloids (e.g. veratridine) that activate sodium ion channels and cause rapid cardiac failure and death if ingested.[48] All parts of the plant are poisonous, with the root and rhizomes being the most toxic.[48] Symptoms typically occur between 30 minutes and 4 hours after ingestion and include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, numbness, headache, sweating, muscle weakness, bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and seizures.[48] Treatment for poisoning includes gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal followed by supportive care including fluid replacement, antiemetics for persistent nausea and vomiting, atropine for treatment of bradycardia, and vasopressors for the treatment of hypotension.[48] Native Americans used the juice pressed from the roots to poison arrows before combat. The dried powdered root of this plant was also used as an insecticide.[49] The plants' teratogenic properties and ability to induce severe birth defects were well known to Native Americans,[49] although they also used minute amounts of the winter-harvested root (combined with Salvia dorii to potentiate its effects and reduce the toxicity of the herb) to treat cancerous tumors. The toxic steroidal alkaloids are produced only when the plants are in active growth, so herbalists and Native Americans who used this plant for medicinal purposes harvested the roots during the winter months when the levels of toxic constituents were at their lowest. The roots of V. nigrum and V. schindleri have been used in Chinese herbalism (where plants of this genus are known as «li lu» (藜蘆). Li lu is used internally as a powerful emetic of last resort, and topically to kill external parasites, treat tinea and scabies, and stop itching.[50] However some herbalists refuse to prescribe li lu internally, citing the extreme difficulty in preparing a safe and effective dosage, and that death has occurred at a dosage of 0.6 grams.[50] During the 1930s Veratrum extracts were investigated in the treatment of high blood pressure in humans. However patients often suffered side effects due to the narrow therapeutic index of these products. Due to its toxicity, the use of Veratrum as a treatment for high blood pressure in humans was discontinued.[48]
  • Wake robin — see Arum maculatum.
  • Water hemlock — see Cicuta.
  • White baneberry — see Actaea pachypoda.
  • White snakeroot — see Ageratina altissima.
  • Wild arum — see Arum maculatum.
  • Winter cherry — see Solanum pseudocapsicum.
  • Wolfsbane — see Aconitum.
  • Xanthium (commonly known as cocklebur). Several species. The Common Cocklebur (X. strumarium), a native of North America, can be poisonous to livestock, including horses, cattle, and sheep. Some domestic animals will avoid consuming the plant if other forage is present, but less discriminating animals, such as pigs, will consume the plants and then sicken and die. The seedlings and seeds are the most toxic parts of the plants. Symptoms usually occur within a few hours, producing unsteadiness and weakness, depression, nausea and vomiting, twisting of the neck muscles, rapid and weak pulse, difficulty breathing, and eventually death. Xanthium has also been used for its medicinal properties and for making yellow dye, as indicated by its name (Greek xanthos = 'yellow').
  • Yellow jessamine — see Gelsemium sempervirens.
  • Yew — see Taxus baccata.
  • Zantedeschia (several species, also known as Lily of the Nile and Calla lily). Contain calcium oxalate. All parts of the plant are toxic, producing irritation and swelling of the mouth and throat, acute vomiting and diarrhoea.[51] Can be fatal.
  • Zigadenus (commonly known as black snakeroot or deathcamas). All parts of the plant are poisonous, causing nausea, severe upset.

Шаблон:Poisoning and toxicityeo:Venenplantolt:Nuodingieji augalai lv:Indīgs augs

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